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It has been half a century since organic silicon was first industrialized in the United States. Due to its diverse physical and chemical properties, this synthetic material has been used in the textile industry in the 1950s. silicone can give fabrics excellent water repellency and unique style. Therefore, the finishing of fabrics became the main application field of silicone. However, with the progress of the times, the application of silicones in the textile industry has become an important type of auxiliary in various textile processes.
The main application areas are: ① raw cotton yarn lubricant, style improver, defoamer, release agent, spinneret modifier; ② spinning and weaving oil agent; ③ weaving lubricant, light yarn wax , Defoamer for sizing; ① Knitting lubricant, style finishing agent; ③ Scouring defoamer, bath softener; ⑥ Dyeing and printing auxiliary, defoamer, bath softener; ⑦ Finishing and processing Water repellent, hydrophilic agent, antifouling agent, softener; style finishing agent, smoothing agent, darkening agent, antibacterial deodorant, antistatic agent, coating agent, stretch processing agent, brightening agent, raising agent, anti-slip agent , Fracture enhancer, anti-finishing agent, elasticity increasing agent, anti-melting agent.
1. The characteristics of silicone
The main structure of organosilicon is a silicon-oxygen skeleton, surrounded by hydrogen atoms or organic groups. The bonding energy of the silicon-oxygen bond is greater than that of the carbon-carbon bond, that is, the chemical bonding force is stronger. Therefore, the stability of organic silicon to heat and chemicals is also strong. In addition, the charge characteristics of silicon atoms and oxygen atoms are very different, and the silicon-oxygen bond is in the intermediate state of covalent bond and ionic bond. Therefore, it is a relatively stable structure, and it is difficult for molecules to vibrate with neighboring molecules when they vibrate with a large amplitude. Then, the distance between molecules becomes larger, and the gravitational force between molecules becomes smaller. Due to this chemical structure, the physical properties of silicone are determined to be low surface tension, low temperature dependence, good smoothness and lubricity. Therefore, it is widely used in various processes of fiber processing.
The physical forms of silicone are oily, gelatinous and resinous. Silicone oil has a chain-like structure, with a large degree of freedom of molecular movement and good fluidity. Due to the different degree of polymerization, its viscosity can also be adjusted freely. In particular, it is relatively easy to realize the denaturation of substituents, so the range of changes in physical properties is also very large. For example, it can have completely different physical properties from water repellency to water absorption, so silicone oil is the most used type of silicone for textiles.
Silica-like molecules have a network structure. By changing the number of cross-linking points, the degree of freedom of molecular motion can be changed. In particular, by selecting the type of cross-linking agent and cross-linking conditions, products with different physical properties can be obtained. As a silicone for fiber processing, its development prospects are very broad.
Silicone resins have high crosslinking density and are insoluble and infusible, but their prepolymers are soluble in solvents. The application of this type of silicone in textile processing needs to be researched and developed in the future.
Link to this article：Organosilicon and its application in textile industry
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